Evolution Of G, 2G, 3G, 4G And The Latest 5G Network

The evolution of G to 5G network brought a lot to us and it will keep on continuing its journey, the journey which started in Japan in 1979 has evolved massively and changed a lot in this digital era. So let us discuss some of its key points towards this massive evolution of technology.


1G/G

1G/G is the first generation of mobile telecommunications. It was introduced in 1979-1980 by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) in 1979 and was the first nationwide mobile communication network of Japan. It is based on analog telecommunications standards and the radio signals used by 1G networks are analog

There is not much difference between 1G and 2G, the main difference is the radio signals used in 1G are analogue and in 2G are digital and also both the networks use the digital signal for radio tower the only difference is in 2G the voice call in automatically encoded to digital but in 1G it is modulated to higher frequency i.e roughly 150MHz and above which results in 1G gets replaced by 2G.


2G

2G network was first commercially launched in Finland in 1991 by Radiolinja. In 2G network introduction of digital modulation was done. Some of the major advantages of 2G over 1G is:

  • The 2G network enables the user to share text messages, pictures and MMS and also the text messages are encrypted which was one of the biggest evolution of user data security and also that created user trust on 2G network.
  • It also provided the use of a digitally encrypted phone conversation.
  • The voice calls in 2G networks are free from noise with the help of digital modulation.
  • The 2G network enables more user per frequency band.
  •  General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) enhanced the transfer speed of radio services and data transfer with 40 kbit/s and 384 kbit/s respectively.
  • The uplink band of the 2G network is 890-915 MHz and the downlink band is 935-960 MHz.

3G

The first commercial launch of 3G was on 1 October 2001 by  NTT DoCoMo in Japan. It is the upgradation for 2.5G and 2.5G GPRS networks. Some key factor of the 3G network are:

  • In 3G network web browsing with a faster rate, more encrypted data transfers and security were introduced.
  • 3G network supports 2 Mbps speed for low mobility users and up to 384 Kbps for mobile users.
  • It increased the efficiency of the spectrum.
  • The 3G network works on 2100 MHz band
  • We will find the 3G network in wireless voice telephony, mobile internet access, fixed-mobile internet access, video calls and mobile TV.
  • 3G network supports a transfer rate of 144 Kbit/s.

4G

The 4G network was first released in 1998-2000 but was launched commercially in 2009-2010. The first LTE(Long Term Evolution) standard was commercially deployed in Oslo, Norway, and Stockholm, Sweden in 1998. Some of the major key upgrades of the 4G network are.

  • 4G works on 1800 MHz, 2600 MHz and 800 MHZ bands.
  • 4G uses the integral architecture of LAN and WAN.
  • 4G works on the principle of OFDM and MIMO.
  • LAN and WiMAX are the two technologies that 4G works on.
  • 4G network supports over 200 voice channels simultaneously.
  • Supports mobile web access, Ip telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conference and 3D television.
  • LTE supports peak download of 100 Mbit/s and peak upload of 50 Mbit/s.
  • WiMAX supports peak download of 126 Mbit/s and peak upload of 56 Mbit/s.
  • Supports data rate up to 1Gbps for immobile users and up to 100 Mbps for mobile users.

5G

5G network is a digital cellular network like its predecessor 4G, 5G network is divided into small geographical areas called cells. All the 5G devices which are in the cells are connected with the internet by radio waves through a local antenna in the cells.

  • 5G network will have a higher bandwidth rate with an average download speed of 10 gigabits per second(Gbit/s).
  • The speed of 5G network will be from 50Mbit/s to over 1Gbit/s.
  • 5G network can support up to million devices per square kilometre.
  • The fastest 5G is known is mmWave, with a maximum speed of 1.8 Gbit/s.
  • Remember 5G network is yet to release commercially, countries to have 5G connectivity commercially by 2021 are South Korea, China, United States, India, UK and few more.

We hope this information helped you to know about the evolution of telecom networks, their history and the advantages. Will be back with yet another interesting topic.

Thank You.


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About the author

Samrat Bhadra

Samrat Bhadra is a tech enthusiast and the founder/author of ‘The Tech Merger‘. He pursued BCA and currently pursuing MCA.

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